Psychodynamic Psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy that has its foundations in the idea that we are motivated by thoughts and feelings that are out of our awareness. These unconscious processes are difficult to access, and can exert powerful effects in day-to-day life. By encouraging patients to speak openly and with curiosity about their mental experiences, psychodynamic therapy helps patients learn about the way their minds work. The insight gained about internal mental processes and about ways of relating to others is used in the service of changing habitual ways of thinking and acting. This deep exploration of motivation and mental experience empowers patients to live richer, more fulfilling lives in a number of areas including, but not limited to: self-esteem, work, and relationships.
See this excerpt from: "Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A clinical manual" by Deborah Cabaniss et al. for more information about psychodynamic psychotherapy:
Cognitive-behavioral therapy or CBT is a form of psychotherapy that harnesses the close relationship between thoughts, behaviors and feelings in order to improve wellbeing and functioning. By targeting behaviors that sustain negative thoughts and emotions, and by bringing focus to unhelpful thought patterns, this therapy helps patients reduce the intensity and duration of negative feelings. In contrast to psychodynamic psychotherapy, CBT tends to be highly structured and involves worksheets and assignments to practice new skills.
Mindfulness is the practice of being aware of present feelings, thoughts, and physical sensations in a non-judgmental and undivided manner. As with any new skill, it requires practice. Mindfulness can take many forms including from the simplest breathing exercise, to guided visualization exercises, to playing sports. What makes an activity a mindful one is the direction of attention to the present, and practicing non-judgment.
Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects that medications and psychotropic drugs have on mood, thoughts and behaviors. It is also the branch of psychiatry that focuses on alleviating mental distress through the use of medications. Psychiatrists are able to prescribe medications to treat mental illness by drawing on their medical training, their knowledge of the mechanisms of action of various psychotropic medications, and their understanding of neurobiological vulnerabilities that contribute to different mental disorders.
Consultation-Liaison psychiatry, also known as CL Psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine, is a psychiatric subspecialty that is at the interface between medical/surgical specialties and psychiatry. Some areas of focus include: helping patients cope psychologically with medical illness, helping doctors deliver high quality medical care to psychiatrically ill patients, and improving patient-doctor communication in the hospital setting, among others.